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Mali‬
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 


Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is bordered by Algeria to the north, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

Its size is just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) with a population of 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako.

Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers.

The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire.

During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France, and stretched to the west coast of Africa.

In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation.

Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state, Azawad.

b by a military coup that took place in March and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels.

In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north.

Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November 2013.


Republic of Mali - République du Mali  

Motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French)
"One people, one goal, one faith"

Capital and largest city: Bamako (12°39′N 8°0′W)

Official languages: French
Vernacular languages: Bambara

Ethnic groups:
• 50% Mande
• 17% Fula
• 12% Voltaic (Senufo / Bwa)
• 10% Tuareg / Moor
•  6% Songhai
•  4% other

Demonym: Malian

Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic
• President: 
• Prime Minister: 

Legislature: National Assembly

Independence: from France:
20 June 1960 
as Mali:
22 September 1960 

Area:
• Total:1,240,192 km2 (24th) - 478,839 sq mi
• Water (%): 1.6

Population: 
April 2009 census 14,517,176 (67th)
Density: 11.7/km2 (215th) - 30.3/sq mi

GDP (PPP): 2012 estimate
• Total: $17.983 billion
• Per capita: $1,100

Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone:
GMT (UTC+0) - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+0)
Drives on the right
Calling code: +223
ISO 3166 code: ML
Internet TLD: .ml


a.
As the Sudanese Republic, with Senegal as the Mali Federation.