From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 5/2014
Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator", is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland, which borders Costa Rica's Cocos Island.
The main spoken language in Ecuador is Spanish (94% of the population). Languages of official use in native communities include Quichua, Shuar, and eleven other languages. Ecuador has a land area of 283,520 km2.
Its capital city is Quito, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the 1970s for having the best preserved and least altered historic center in Latin America.
The country's largest city is Guayaquil. The historic center of Cuenca, the third-largest city in the country in size and economically, was also declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned, inland Spanish-style colonial city in the Americas.
Ecuador is home to a great variety of species, many of them endemic, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. This species diversity makes Ecuador one of the seventeen megadiverse countries in the world, it is considered the most biodiverse country in the world per unit area.
The new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights.
Ecuador is a presidential republic. It became independent in 1830 after having been part of the Spanish colonial empire and, for a much shorter time, of the republic of Gran Colombia. It is a medium-income country with an HDI score of 0.720 (2011).
Republic of Ecuador
"Dios, patria y libertad" (Spanish)
"Pro Deo, Patria et Libertate" (Latin)
"God, homeland and freedom"
Salve, Oh Patria (Spanish)
Hail, Oh Homeland
Quito (00°9′S 78°21′W)
Official languages: Spanish
Recognised regional languages:
• Kichwa (Quichua)
• & others "are in official use for indigenous peoples"
• 71.9% Mestizo
• 7.4% Montubio
• 7.2% Afroecuadorian
• 7% Amerindian
• 6.1% White
• 0.4% others
Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• Vice President
Legislature: National Assembly
August 10, 1809
May 24, 1822
from Gran Colombia:
May 13, 1830
February 16, 1830
September 28, 2008
• Total: 283,560a km2 (75th) 109,484 sq mi
• Water (%): 5
Population: 2011 estimate 15,223,680 (65th) - 2010 census 14,483,499
Density: 58.95/km2 (151st) 152.69/sq mi
GDP (PPP): 2012 estimate
• Total: $153.239 billion
• Per capita: $10,055
United States dollar(USD)
ECT / GALT (UTC−5 / −6)
Drives on the right
Calling code: +593
ISO 3166 code: EC
Internet TLD: .ec