From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 02/2015
People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ (Pinyin)
"March of the Volunteers"
Beijing • 39°55′N 116°23′E
Recognised regional languages
• various others
Official written language
• Vernacular Chinese
• Official script
• Simplified Chinese
• 91.51% Han
• and 8.49% 55 other ethic groups
• Socialist single-party state
• Congress Chairman:
• Conference Chairman:
• National People's Congress
Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty
• 221 BCE
• 1 January 1912
People's Republic proclaimed
• 1 October 1949
• Total: 9,596,961 km (3rd/4th) - 3,705,407 sq mi
• Water (%): 0.28%
2013 estimate • 1,357,380,000 (1st)
2010 census • 1,339,724,852 (1st)
Density: 2013 estimate:
145/km2 (83rd) - 373/sq mi
GDP (PPP): 2013 estimate
$16.149 trillion (2nd)
• Per capita
China Standard Time (UTC+8)
yyyy-mm-dd or yyyy年m月d日
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code:
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state located in East Asia.
It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.35 billion.
The PRC is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing.
It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau).
The PRC also claims the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity commonly known as Taiwan today, as a part of its territory, which includes the island of Taiwan as Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province.
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second-largest country by land area, and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement.
China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.
The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from South and Central Asia.
The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.
China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas.
The history of China goes back to the ancient civilization - one of the world's earliest - that flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.
For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (c. 2000 BCE).
Since 221 BCE, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and been reformed numerous times.
The Republic of China (ROC) overthrew the last dynasty in 1911, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949.
After the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II, the Communist Party defeated the nationalist Kuomintang in mainland China and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, while the Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to its present capital of Taipei.
China had the largest and most complex economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies.
As of 2013, it is the world's second-largest economy by both nominal total GDP and purchasing power parity (PPP), and is also the world's largest exporter and importer of goods.
China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, with the second-largest defence budget.
The PRC has been a United Nations member since 1971, when it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council.
China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM and the G-20.
China is a regional power within Asia and has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of commentators.
• Anhui (安徽省)
• Fujian (福建省)
• Gansu (甘肃省)
• Guangdong (广东省)
• Guizhou (贵州省)
• Hainan (海南省)
• Hebei (河北省)
• Heilongjiang (黑龙江省)
• Henan (河南省)
• Hubei (湖北省)
• Hunan (湖南省)
• Jiangsu (江苏省)
• Jiangxi (江西省)
• Jilin (吉林省)
• Liaoning (辽宁省)
• Qinghai (青海省)
• Shaanxi (陕西省)
• Shandong (山东省)
• Shanxi (山西省)
• Sichuan (四川省)
• Yunnan (云南省)
• Zhejiang (浙江省)
• Taiwan (台湾省)
• governed by ROC
SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS (特别行政区)
• Guangxi (广西壮族自治区)
• Inner Mongolia / Nei Mongol (内蒙古自治区)
• Ningxia (宁夏回族自治区)
• Xinjiang (新疆维吾尔自治区)
• Tibet / Xizang (西藏自治区)
• Beijing (北京市)
• Chongqing (重庆市)
• Shanghai (上海市)
• Tianjin (天津市)
• Hong Kong / Xianggang (香港特别行政区)
• Macau / Aomen (澳门特别行政区)
LARGEST CITIES OR TOWNS OF CHINA
• Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
Name: Hong Kong
Province: Hong Kong
Neolithic: c. 8500 - c. 2100 BCE
Xia dynasty: c. 2100 - c.1600 BCE
Shang dynasty: c. 1600 - c. 1046 BCE
Zhou dynasty: c. 1045 - 256 BCE
• Eastern Zhou
• Spring and Autumn
Qin dynasty: 221-206 BCE
Han dynasty: 206 BCE-220 CE
• Western Han
• Xin dynasty
• Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220-280
• Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin dynasty: 265-420
• Western Jin
• Eastern Jin
Sixteen Kingdoms: 420-589
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Sui dynasty: 581-618
Tang dynasty: 618-907
(Second Zhou 690-705)
Five Dynasties and
Ten Kingdoms: 907-960
Liao dynasty: 907-1125
Song dynasty: 960-1279
• Northern Song
• W. Xia
• Southern Song
Yuan dynasty: 1271-1368
Ming dynasty: 1368-1644
Qing dynasty: 1644-1911
Republic of China
China on Taiwan
Names of China
The word "China" is derived from the Persian word Chin (چین), which is from the Sanskrit word Cīna (चीन).
It is first recorded in 1516 in the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The journal was translated and published in England in 1555.
The traditional theory, proposed in the 17th century by Martino Martini, is that Cīna is derived from "Qin" (秦), the westernmost of the Chinese kingdoms during the Zhou Dynasty.
However, the word was used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata (5th century BC) and the Laws of Manu (2nd century BC).
The official name of the present country is the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó).
The common Chinese names for the country are Zhōngguó (Chinese: 中国, from zhōng, "central" or "middle", and guó, "state" or "states," and in modern times, "nation") and Zhōnghuá (Chinese: 中华), although the country's official name has been changed numerous times by successive dynasties and modern governments.
The term Zhōngguó appeared in various ancient texts, such as the Classic of
History of the 6th century BCE, and in pre-imperial times it was often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia tribes from perceived "barbarians".
The term, which can be either singular or plural, referred to the group of states or provinces in the central plain, but was not used as a name for the country as a whole until the nineteenth century.
The Chinese were not unique in regarding their country as "central", with other civilizations having the same view of themselves.
Jade deer ornament dating from the Shang Dynasty (17th–11th centuries BCE)
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 250,000 and 2.24 million years ago.
A cave in Zhoukoudian (near present-day Beijing) exhibits hominid fossils dated at between 680,000 and 780,000 BCE.
The fossils are of Peking Man, an example of Homo erectus who used fire.
The Peking Man site has also yielded remains of Homo sapiens dating back to 18,000-11,000 BCE.
Some scholars assert that a form of proto-writing existed in China as early as 3000 BCE.
According to Chinese tradition, the first imperial dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2070 BCE.
However, the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959.
It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia Dynasty or of another culture from the same period.
EARLY DYNASTIC RULE
The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records.
The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script (from c. 1200 BCE) represents the oldest form of Chinese writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters.
The Shang were conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords.
Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 300-year Spring and Autumn Period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king.
By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th-3rd centuries BCE, there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now China, each with its own king, ministry and army.
The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE, after the state of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms and established the first unified Chinese state.
Qin Shi Huang, the emperor of Qin, proclaimed himself the "First Emperor" (始皇帝) and imposed reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart axles, and currency.
The Qin Dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after Qin Shi Huang's death, as its harsh legalist and authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.
The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BCE and 220 CE, and created a lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that has endured to the present day.
The Han Dynasty expanded the empire's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world.
The Han Dynasty adopted Confucianism, a philosophy developed in the Spring and Autumn period, as its official state ideology.
Despite the Han's official abandonment of Legalism, the official ideology of the Qin, Legalist institutions and policies remained and formed the basis of the Han government.
The Great Wall of China was built by several dynasties over two thousand years to protect the sedentary agricultural regions of the Chinese interior from incursions by nomadic pastoralists of the northern steppes
After the collapse of Han, a period of disunion known as the period of the Three Kingdoms followed.
In 581 CE, China was reunited under the Sui.
However, the Sui Dynasty declined following its defeat in the Goguryeo–Sui War (598-614).
Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese technology and culture entered a golden age.
The An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century devastated the country and weakened the dynasty.
The Song Dynasty was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy.
Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, mostly due to the expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.
The Song Dynasty also saw a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and portrait painting were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity, and social elites gathered to view art, share their own and trade precious artworks.
The Song Dynasty saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang.
In the 13th century, China was gradually conquered by the Mongol empire.
In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song Dynasty in 1279.
Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300.
A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan Dynasty in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty.
Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture.
It was during this period that Zheng He led explorations throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.
In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing.
During the Ming Dynasty, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and innate morality.
In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, a minor Ming official who led the peasant revolt.
The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell.
The Manchu Qing Dynasty then allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty, and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing Dynasty.
END OF DYNASTIC RULE
The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China.
In the 19th century, the dynasty experienced Western imperialism following the First Opium War (1839-42) and the Second Opium War (1856-60) with Britain and France.
China was forced to sign unequal treaties, pay compensation, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the Britishunder the 1842 Treaty of Nanking.
The First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.
The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which millions of people died.
In the 1850s and 1860s, the failed Taiping Rebellion ravaged southern China.
Other major rebellions included the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855-67), the Nian Rebellion (1851-68), the Miao Rebellion (1854-73), the Panthay Rebellion (1856-73) and the Dungan Revolt (1862-77).
The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by the series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s.
In the 19th century, the great Chinese Diaspora began.
Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876-79, in which between 9 and 13 million people died.
In 1898, the Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi.
The ill-fated anti-Western Boxer Rebellion of 1899-1901 further weakened the dynasty.
Although Cixi sponsored an ambitious program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911-12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1912-1949)
On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president.
However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China.
In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and reestablish the republic.
After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented.
Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory.
In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political manoeuvrings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.
The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state.
The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communists, against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War.
This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the Communists retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), a theatre of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists.
Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population.
In all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.
An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation.
Japan surrendered unconditionally to China in 1945.
Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China, which immediately claimed sovereignty.
China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained.
The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war.
In 1947, constitutional rule was established, but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1949-present)
Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC's territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their surrounding islands.
On 1 October 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
In 1950, the People's Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROCand occupying Tibet.
However, remaining Nationalist forces continued to wage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s.
Mao encouraged population growth, and under his leadership the Chinese population almost doubled from around 550 million to over 900 million.
However, Mao's Great Leap Forward, a large-scale economic and social reform project, resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation.
Between 1 and 2 million landlords were executed as "counterrevolutionaries."
In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a period of political recrimination and social upheaval which lasted until Mao's death in 1976.
In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.
After Mao's death in 1976 and the arrest of the faction known as the Gang of Four, who were blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping took power and led the country to significant economic reforms.
The Communist Party subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded in favour of private land leases.
This turn of events marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment.
China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982.
In 1989, the violent suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnation and sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries.
Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s.
Under their administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.
The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's leadership in the 2000s.
GEOGARPHY OF CHINA
Landscape and climate
• Longsheng Rice Terrace in Guangxi
• The Li River in Guangxi
• The South China Sea coast at Hainan
• Jiuzhaigou Valley in Sichuan
The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E.
China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width.
In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.
Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.
Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur.
To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.
The world's highest point, Mount Everest (8,848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border.
The country's lowest point, and the world's third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.
China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.
In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry.
In summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.
The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.
A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert.
Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Korea and Japan.
China's environmental watchdog, Sepa, stated in 2007 that China is losing a million acres (4,000 km²) per year to desertification.
Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries.
Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.
China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya.
By one measure, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.
The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993.
It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010.
China is home to at least 551 species of mammals (the third-highest such number in the world), 1,221 species of birds (eighth), 424 species of reptiles (seventh) and 333 species of amphibians (seventh).
China is the most biodiverse country in each category outside the tropics.
Wildlife in China share habitat with and bear acute pressure from the world's largest population of homo sapiens.
At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.
Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percent of China's total land area.
China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, and is home to a variety of forest types.
Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species.
The understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo.
In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons.
Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora.
Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China.
China has over 10,000 recorded species of fungi, and of them, nearly 6,000 are higher fungi.
Wind turbines in Xinjiang - The Dabancheng project is Asia's largest wind farm
In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.
While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favour of rapid economic development.
Urban air pollution is a severe health issue in the country.
The World Bank estimated in 2013 that 16 of the world's 20 most-polluted cities are located in China.
China is the world's largest carbon dioxide emitter.
The country also has water problems.
Roughly 298 million Chinese in rural areas do not have access to safe drinking water, and 40% of China's rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste by late 2011.
This crisis is compounded by increasingly severe water shortages, particularly in the north-east of the country.
However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy commercialization, with $52 billion invested in 2011 alone.
It is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable energy projects.
By 2009, over 17% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources - most notably hydroelectric power plants, of which China has a total installed capacity of 197 GW.
In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$618.55 billion) in water infrastructure and desalination projects over a ten-year period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020.
In 2013, China began a five-year, US$277-billion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country.
The People's Republic of China has administrative control over 22 provinces and considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is currently and independently governed by the Republic of China, which disputes the PRC's claim.
China also has five subdivisions officially termed autonomous regions, each with a designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs), which enjoy a degree of political autonomy.
These 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, and four municipalities can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term which usually excludes the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.
None of these divisions are recognized by the ROC government, which claims the entirety of the PRC's territory.
The PRC has diplomatic relations with 171 countries and maintains embassies in 162.
Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition.
In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
China was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries.
Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011.
Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.
Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, especially in the matter of armament sales.
Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.
This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran.
China has a close economic and military relationship with Russia, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.
In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours.
In 2004, it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues.
The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005.
China is also a founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.
China became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 11 December 2001.
In 2000, the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.
China has a significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market.
In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.
In recent decades, China has followed a policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation; in 2012, Sino-African trade totalled over US$160 billion.
China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.
EMERGING SUPERPOWER STATUS
China is regularly hailed as a potential new superpower, with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play a prominent global role in the 21st century.
Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt China's growth as the century progresses.
Some authors also question the definition of "superpower", arguing that China's large economy alone would not qualify it as a superpower, and noting that it lacks the military and cultural influence of the United States.
Economy of China, Agriculture in China and List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
China and other major developing economies by GDP per capita at purchasing-power parity, 1990-2013.
The Shanghai Stock Exchange building in Shanghai's Lujiazui financial district.
Shanghai has the 25th-largest city GDP in the world, totalling US$304 billion in 2011
As of 2013, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$9.469 trillion according to the International Monetary.
If purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account (US$16.149 trillion in 2013), China's economy is again second only to the United States.
In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US$11,868, while nominal GDP per capita was US$6,959.
Both cases put China behind around ninety countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings.
ECONOMIC HISTORY AD GROWTH (1949-present)
From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy.
Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule.
Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs).
Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.
Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having a market economy based on private property ownership, and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.
The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, but private enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million private businesses recorded in 2008.
Since economic liberalization began in 1978, China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies, relying largely on investment- and export-led growth.
According to the IMF, China's annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%.
Between 2007 and 2011, China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined.
According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has a very high 3G growth rating.
Its high productivity, low labour costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a global leader in manufacturing. However, the Chinese economy is highly energy-intensive and inefficient.
China became the world's largest energy consumer in 2010, relies on coal to supply over 70% of its energy needs, and surpassed the US to become the world's largest oil importer in September 2013.
However, China's economic growth and industrialization has damaged its environment, and in the early 2010s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles - international demand for Chinese exports has weakened and this has led to turmoil in the global economy.
In the online realm, China's e-commerce industry has grown more slowly than the EU and the US, with a significant period of development occurring from around 2009 onwards.
According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012.
Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China's online payment market in February 2014, while Tenpay's share is around 20 percent, and China UnionPay's share is slightly greater than 10 percent.
CHINA IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
China is a member of the WTO and is the world's largest trading power, with a total international trade value of US$3.87 trillion in 2012.
Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previous year, making its reserves by far the world's largest.
As of 2009, China owns an estimated $1.6 trillion of US securities.
China, holding over US$1.16 trillion in US Treasury bonds, is the largest foreign holder of US public debt.
In 2012, China was the world's largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $253 billion.
China also invests abroad, with a total outward FDI of $62.4 billion in 2012, and a number of major takeovers of foreign firms by Chinese companies.
China's undervalued exchange rate has caused friction with other major economies, and it has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods.
China ranked 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index in 2009, although it is only ranked 136th among the 179 countries measured in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom.
In 2011, 61 Chinese companies were listed in the Fortune Global 500.
Measured by total revenues, three of the world's top ten most valuable companies in 2011 were Chinese, including fifth-ranked Sinopec Group, sixth-ranked China National Petroleum and seventh-ranked State Grid (the world's largest electric utilities company).
INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE RENMINBI
Since 2008 global financial crisis, China realized the dependency of US Dollar and the weakness of the international monetary system.
The RMB Internationalization accelerated in 2009 when China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.
In November 2010, Russia began using the Chinese renminbi in its bilateral trade with China.
This was soon followed by Japan, Australia, Singapore, the United Kingdom and Canada.
As a result of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currency in the world in 2013.
China was a world leader in science and technology until the Ming Dynasty.
Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), later became widespread in Asia and Europe.
Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers.
However, by the 17th century, the Western world had surpassed China in scientific and technological development.
The causes of this Great Divergence continue to be debated.
After repeated military defeats by Western nations in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.
After the Communists came to power in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific research was part of central planning.
After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired academic system was gradually reformed.
Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research, spending over US$100 billion on scientific research and development in 2011 alone.
Science and technology are seen as vital for achieving economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".
While Chinese-born scientists have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry once, these scientists had all earned their doctorates and conducted their award-winning research in the West.
China is rapidly developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering; in 2009, it produced over 10,000 Ph.D. engineering graduates, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country.
China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals.
Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing, and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the world's most powerful.
Currently China is experiencing a significant growth in the use of industrial robots; from 2008 to 2011, the installation of multi-role robots has risen by 136 percent.
The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is a major source of national pride.
In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently.
In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of June 2013, ten Chinese nationals have journeyed into space. Two of them are women.
In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large manned station by the early 2020s.
In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang'e 3 probe and Yutu rover onto the moon.
The rover is expected to last 3 months and the lander up to one year. China plans to collect lunar soil samples by 2017.
China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users by February 2012.
It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 591 million internet users as of 2013, equivalent to around 44% of its population.
A 2013 report found that the national average internet connection speed is 3.14 MB/s.
As of July 2013, China accounts for 24% of the world's internet-connected devices.
China Telecom and China Unicom, the world's two largest broadband providers, accounted for 20% of global broadband subscribers.
China Telecom alone serves more than 50 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million.
Several Chinese telecommunications companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the Chinese military.
China is developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012, and is planned to offer global coverage by 2020.
Since the late 1990s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways.
In 2011 China's highways had reached a total length of 85,000 km (53,000 mi), making it the longest highway system in the world.
In 1991, there were only six bridges across the main stretch of the Yangtze River, which bisects the country into northern and southern halves.
By October 2014, there were 81 such bridges and tunnels.
China has the world's largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both auto sales and production.
Auto sales in 2009 exceeded 13.6 million and reach 40 million by 2020.
A side-effect of the rapid growth of China's road network has been a significant rise in traffic accidents, with poorly enforced traffic laws cited as a possible cause in 2011 alone, around 62,000 Chinese died in road accidents.
• In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles - as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China.
• Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport is the second largest airport terminal in the world
• China's railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the world, handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in 2006.
• As of 2013, the country had 103,144 km (64,091 mi) of railways, the third longest network in the world.
• The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 km/h (268 mph), is the fastest commercial train service in the world.
• All provinces and regions are connected to the rail network except Macau.
• China's indigenous bullet train named CRH380A
The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the Chinese New Year holiday, when the world's largest annual human migration takes place.
In 2013, Chinese railways delivered 2.106 billion passenger trips, generating 1,059.56 billion passenger-kilometers and carried 3.967 billion tons of freight, generating 2,917.4 billion cargo tons-kilometers.
China's high-speed rail (HSR) system, built entirely since the early 2000s, had 11,028 kilometres (6,852 miles) of track in 2013 and was the longest HSR network in the world.
The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad bridges in the world.
The HSR track network is set to reach approximately 16,000 km (9,900 mi) by 2020.
As of May 2014, 20 Chinese cities have urban mass transit systems in operation, with a dozen more to join them by 2020.
The Shanghai Metro, Beijing Subway, Guangzhou Metro, Hong Kong MTR and Shenzhen Metro are among the longest and busiest in the world.
There were 182 commercial airports in China in 2012.
With 82 new airports planned to open by 2015, more than two-thirds of the airports under construction worldwide in 2013 were in China, and Boeing expects that China's fleet of active commercial aircraft in China will grow from 1,910 in 2011 to 5,980 in 2031.
With rapid expansion in civil aviation, the largest airports in China have also joined the ranks of the busiest in the world.
2013, Beijing's Capital Airport ranked second in the world by passenger traffic (it was 26th in 2002).
Since 2010, the Hong Kong International Airport and Shanghai Pudong International Airport have ranked first and third in air cargo tonnage.
Some 80% of China's airspace remains restricted for military use, and Chinese airlines made up eight of the 10 worst-performing Asian airlines in terms of delays.
China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to foreign shipping.
In 2012, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Tianjin, Dalian ranked in the top in the world in in container traffic and cargo tonnage.
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbour on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay became the world's busiest container port in 2010
China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.51% of the total population.
The Han Chinese - the world's largest single ethnic group - outnumber other ethnic groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang.
Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census.
Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.
The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign citizens living in China.
The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), the United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).
There are as many as 292 living languages in China.
The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken natively by 70% of the population), and other Chinese languages: Wu (including Shanghainese), Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Min (including Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka.
Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau.
Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family.
Across northeastern and northwestern China, minority ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur.
Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea.
Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language.
Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages.
Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds.
Chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years.
They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible Chinese languages and dialects to communicate with each other through writing.
In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China.
Chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin system.
Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an Indic script.
Uyghur is most commonly written in a Perseo-Arabic script.
The Mongolian script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet.
Modern Zhuang uses the Latin alphabet.
China has urbanized significantly in the past few decades.
The percent of the country's population living in urban areas increased from 20% in 1990 to 46% in 2007.
It is estimated that China's urban population will reach one billion by 2030.
As of 2012, there are more than 262 million migrant workers in China.
Most of them are from rural areas and seek work in the cities.
China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, including the seven megacities (cities with a population of over 10 million) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Wuhan.
By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.
The figures in the table below are from the 2010 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations).
The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult; the figures below include only long-term residents.
• Beijing's Tsinghua University is one of the top-ranked universities in China.
Since 1986, compulsory education in China comprises primary and junior secondary school, which together last for nine years.
In 2010, about 82.5 percent of students continued their education at a three-year senior secondary school.
The Gaokao, China's national university entrance exam, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions.
In 2010, 27 percent of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education.
Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level.
In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.
Annual education investment went from less than US$50 billion in 2003 to more than US$250 billion in 2011.
However, there remains an inequality in education spending.
In 2010, the annual education expenditure per secondary school student in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totalled ¥3,204.
Free compulsory education in China consists of primary school and junior secondary school between the ages of 6 and 15.
In 2011, around 81.4% of Chinese have received secondary education.
By 2007, there were 396,567 primary schools, 94,116 secondary schools, and 2,236 higher education institutions in China.
As of 2010, 94% of the population over age 15 are literate, compared to only 20% in 1950.
In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.
The Ministry of Health, together with its counterparts in the provincial health bureaux, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.
An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s.
At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases.
Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign.
After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly due to better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes.
Healthcare in China became mostly privatized, and experienced a significant rise in quality.
In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion.
By 2011, the campaign resulted in 95% of China's population having basic health insurance coverage.
In 2011, China was estimated to be the world's third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications.
Life expectancy at birth in China is 75 years, and the infant mortality rate is 12 per thousand.
Both have improved significantly since the 1950s.
Rates of stunting, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1% in 1990 to 9.9% in 2010.
Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution, hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, and an increase in obesity among urban youths.
China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained.
In 2010, air pollution caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China.
e.g. Beijing's Forbidden City, shows its classical Chinese architectural style
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies.
For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han Dynasty.
The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama.
Chinese culture has long emphasized a sense of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective.
Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today.
The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals.
They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.
Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture.
Especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism".
Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.
Access to foreign media remains heavily restricted; only 34 foreign films a year are allowed to be shown in Chinese cinemas.
Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society.
With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.
China is now the third-most-visited country in the world, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010.
It also experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism; an estimated 740 million Chinese holidaymakers travelled within the country in October 2012 alone.
Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history and geographical variety.
The emperors of traditional China were known to have many dining chambers in their palaces, with each chamber divided into several departments, each responsible for a specific type of dish.
China's staple food is rice in the south, wheat based breads and noodles in the north.
Although the diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions, pork is now the most popular meat, accounting for about three-fourths of the country's total meat consumption.
Southern cuisine, due to the area's proximity to the ocean and milder climate, has a wide variety of fish and vegetables.
It differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northern China.
Numerous offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play host to the Chinese diaspora.
Dragon boat racing, a popular traditional Chinese sport
China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world.
There is evidence that archery (Shèjiàn) was practised during the Western Zhou Dynasty.
Swordplay (Jiànshù) and a form of association football (Cùjū) date back to China's early dynasties as well.
Today, some of the most popular sports in the country include martial arts, basketball, football, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker.
Board games such as go (known as weiqi in China), xiangqi, mahjong, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level.
Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture, with morning exercises such as qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan widely practised, and commercial gyms and fitness clubs gaining popularity in the country.
Young people in China are also enjoy soccer and basketball, especially in urban centres with limited space and grass areas.
The American National Basketball Association has a huge following among the Chinese youth, with ethnic or native Chinese players such as Yao Ming and Jeremy Lin held in high esteem.
In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012.
Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat racing, Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are also popular.
China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952.
China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.
China also won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals.
In 2011, Shenzhen in Guandgong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade.
China hosted the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing.